Petroleum Hydrogeology Of The Chalk Southern Central Graben North Sea
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List of Contents

PETROLEUM HYDROGEOLOGY OF CHALK SOUTHERN CENTRAL GRABEN NORTH SEA

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND DATABASE

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Well Data Base
2.3 Seismic Data
2.4.1 Fluid Recovery Data
2.4.2 Pressure Data

3. STRATIGRAPHY

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Stratigraphic Nomenclature
3.3 Stratigraphy Used in This Report
3.3.1 Hidra Formation
3.3.2 Black Band Formation
3.3.3. Herring Formation
3.3.4 Tor/Mackerel Formation
3.3.5 Ekofisk Formation
3.3.6 Post Ekofisk Formation

4. GEOPHYSICAL MAPPING

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Viscosity Mapping and Depth Conversion
4.3 Present Day Depth Maps
4.3.1 Mid Miocene Unconformity Depth map
4.3.2 Top Chalk Group Depth Map
4.3.3. Base Chalk Group Depth Map
4.3.4 Base Mackerel Formation Depth Map
4.4 Mid Miocene Restoration
4.4.1 Decompaction
4.4.2 Palaeo-Bathymetry
4.4.3 Application of the Palaeo-Depth Model
4.5 Palaeo-Depth Maps
4.5.1. Top Chalk Group Depth Map at 10ma
4.5.2 Base Chalk Group Depth Map at 10ma

5. RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sedimentology and Depositional History
5.2.1 Autochthonous Chalk
5.2.2. Allocthonous Chalk
5.3 Factors Affecting Porosity
5.3.1 Primary Compositional Differences
5.3.2 Early Sea Floor Cementation
5.3.3 Burial Depth
5.3.4 Overpressure
5.3.5 Early Migration of Hydrocarbons
5.4 Permeability
5.5 Fluid Distribution in Chalk Reservoirs
5.6 Summary

6. HYDROCARBON SOURCE ROCK AND MATURATION AND MIGRATION INTO THE CHALK

6.1 Source Rock Quality
6.2 Maturity
6.3 Migration into the Chalk

7. HYDRODYNAMICS AND LATERAL MIGRATION IN THE CHALK

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Discussion
7.3 The Hydrodynamic Model
7.3.1 Head Maps
7.3.2 Pressure/Depth Plots
7.3.3 Water Salinity Maps
7.4 Hydraulic Systems Analysis
7.4.1 Pressure/Depth Plots (P/D)
7.4.2 Hydraulic Head Maps
7.4.3 Tertiary Strata Hydraulic Head
7.4.4 Chalk Group Hydraulic Head
7.4.5 Pre-Chalk Group Hydraulic Head
7.5 Salinity Maps
7.5.1 Chalk Group Water Salinity (TDS)
7.6 Geopressure Analysis
7.7 Oil Migration Analysis
7.7.1 Present Day (Phase 2) Migration
7.7.2 Palaeo (Phase 1) Migration
7.7.3 Model Sensitivity
7.8 Summary

8. PLAY CONCEPTS

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Summary of Petroleum Geology
8.2.1 Reservoir
8.2.2 Source
8.2.3 Structure
8.2.4 Migration
8.2.5 Timing
8.3 Discussion
8.4 Discussion of Dry Holes
8.5 Areas with Potential for New Discoveries
8.6 Summary and Conclusions

9. REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Base Map and Hydrocarbon Occurrences
2. Hydrogeological Database Map
3. Stratigraphic Summary – Chalk Group
4. Smoothed Isopach Chalk Group
5. Smoothed Isopach Hidra Formation
6. Smoothed Isopach Black Band Formation
7. Smoothed Isopach Lower Herring Formation
8. Smoothed Isopach Upper Herring Formation
9. Smoothed Isopach Tor/Mackerel Formation
10. Smoothed Isopach Ekofisk Formation
11. Average Velocity to Top Chalk Group
12. Interval Velocity for Chalk Group
13. Average Velocity to Mid Miocene Unconformity
14. Depth Map Mid Miocene Unconformity
15. Depth Map Top Chalk Group
16. Depth Map Base Chalk Group
17. Depth Map Base Mackerel Formation
18. Estimated Sea Water Depth at 10 Ma
19. Depth Map at 10 Ma Top Chalk Group
20. Depth Map at 10 Ma Base Chalk Group
21. Areas of Mass transport and Deposition: Ekofisk/Tor Formations
22. Correlation of Debris Flows – Tor Formation-Tor Field
23. Porosity versus Depth Chalk Group
24. Published Chalk Porosity/Depth Curves
25. Permeability versus Porosity (Mackerel and Herring Formations)
26. Permeability versus Porosity Chalk Group
27. Permeability versus Porosity Ekofisk Formation
28. Permeability versus Porosity Tor Formation
29. Porosity versus Depth Ekofisk Formation
30. Permeability versus Depth Ekofisk Formation
31. Porosity versus Depth Tor Formation
32. Permeability versus Depth Tor Formation
33. Permeability versus Depth (Mackerel and Herring Formations)
34. Fracture and Matrix Poroperm Relationships Hod Field
35. Oil Saturation as a function of Elevation and Porosity – Hod Field
36. Sealed Compartments versus ‘Hydraulic Continuity’ Cartoons
37. Pressure/Depth Plot Norway Chalk Fields
38. Hydraulic Head Tertiary Strata
39. Distribution of Palaeocene Sandstones
40. Hydraulic Head and Pressure Profiles Chalk Group
41. Schematic Diagram to Illustrate the ‘Thief Zone’ Concept
42. Hydraulic Head Sub-Chalk Group
43. Water Salinity Chalk Group
44. Regional Pressure versus Depth Plot
45. Oil Force Vectors Phase 2 Migration, 10 Ma – Present
46. Ekofisk Well Burial History Curve
47. Estimated Hydraulic Head at 10 Ma Chalk Group
48. Oil Force Vectors Phase 1 Migration, 45-10 Ma
49. Play Map Phase 1 (Pre Miocene Tilt)
50. Play Map Phase 2 (Post Miocene Tilt)

APPENDICES

A: Symbol Notation
B: Well Database
C: Core Analysis Data
D: Pressure Data
E: Geofluids
F: Hydrodynamic Methodology

LIST OF ENCLOSURES

1. Base Map and Hydrocarbon Occurrences
2. Smoothed Isopach Chalk Group
3. Smoothed Isopach Hidra Formation
4. Smoothed Isopach Black Band Formation
5. Smoothed Isopach Lower Herring Formation
6. Smoothed Isopach Upper Herring Formation
7. Smoothed Isopach Tor/Mackerel Formation
8. Smoothed Isopach Ekofisk Formation
9. Depth Map Mid Miocene Unconformity
10. Depth Map Top Chalk Group
11. Depth Map Base Chalk Group
12. Depth Map Base Mackerel Formation
13. Estimated Sea Water Depth at 10 Ma
14. Depth Map at 10 Ma Top Chalk Group
15. Depth Map at 10 Ma Base Chalk Group
16. Hydraulic Head Tertiary Strata
17. Hydraulic Head and Pressure Profiles Chalk Group
18. Hydraulic Head Sub-Chalk Group
19. Water Salinity Chalk Group
20. Regional Pressure versus Depth Plot
21. Oil Force Vectors Phase 2 Migration, 10 Ma – Present
22. Estimated Hydraulic Head at 10 Ma Chalk Group
23. Oil Force Vectors Phase 1 Migration, 45-10 Ma
24. Play Map Phase 1 (Pre Miocene Tilt)
25. Play Map Phase 2 (Post Miocene Tilt)