Hydrocarbon Potential of The Pre-Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan And Russia
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HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF PRE-CASPIAN BASIN,
KAZAKHSTAN AND RUSSIA

Contents



Executive Summary



General Introduction



Exploration and Production History
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Exploration History
3.3 Production History
3.4 Current Activity



Structural framework
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Regional Structural Setting
4.3 Basinal Structural Elements
4.4 Basin Evolution



Geophysical Interpretation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Gravity and Magnetic Features
5.3 Seismic Interpretation
5.4 Halokinesis



6 Stratigraphy
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Pre-Cambrian and Lower Palaeozoic
6.3 Devonian
6.4 Carboniferous
6.5 Permian
6.6 Triassic
6.7 Jurassic
6.8 Cretaceous
6.9 Paleogene-Quaternany



7 Hydrocarbon Source Rocks
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Distribution of Source Rocks
7.3 Oil-Source Rock Correlation
7.4 Maturity
7.5 Migration
7.6 Summary



8 Reservoirs
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Distribution and Characteristics of Reservoirs
8.3 Reservoir Trends
8.4 Pressure trends
8.5 Summary



9 Trapping Mechanisms
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Pre-Salt Traps
9.3 Post-Salt Traps
9.4 Summary

10 Play Concepts
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Pre-Salt Play Concepts
10.3 Post-Salt Play Concepts
10.4 Summary



Bibliography




HDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF PRE-CASPIAN BASIN,KAZAKHSTAN AND RUSSIA

LIST OF FIGURES

2.1 Study Area
2.2 Database



3.1 Hydrocarbon Seeps
3.2 Location of Deep Wells and Seismic Coverage
3.3 Foreign Joint Venture



4.1 Regional Structural Setting
4.2 Structural Elements and Depth to Basement
4.3 Structural Style of Basin Margin – South-East
4.4 Structural Style of Basin Margin – North-West (Karpen/Starshinov)
4.5 Structural Style of Basin Margin – East (Alibeekmola/Kenkiyak)
4.6 Structural Style of Basin Margin – East (Karatyube/Kopa)
4.7 Structural Style of Basin Margin – South-East (Tortay/Karagon)
4.8 Structural Style of Basin Margin – South (Prorva/Tengiz/Karaton)
4.9 Plate Tectonic Evolution
4.10 Summary of the Major Tectonic Elements in the Pre-Caspian Basin



5.1 Gravity Features
5.2 Consolidated Crustal Thickness
5.3 Magnetic Features
5.4 Time-Depth Curves – Northern Flank of Basin
5.5 Central Pre-Caspian. CDP Time Section Quality
5.6 Northern Caspian Sea. CDP Time Section Quality and Pre-Salt Structuring
5.7 CDP Time Section Adjacent to Karachaganak Field
5.8 Seismic Line 108701 (CentreSpetsgeofizika) Western Flank of Basin (Yuzhno Plodoviten Field)
5.9 Top Mid-Devonian (p3) Depth Map
5.10 Isopach Map – Mid-Devonian to Basement
5.11 Top Carboniferous (p2) Depth Map
5.12 Base Kungurian Salt (p1) Depth Map
5.13 Distribution of Salt Domes and Swells
5.14 Example of Salt-features in the Ural River area
5.15 Seismic Line 108805 (CentreSpetsgeofizika) illustrating salt withdrawal and inter-dome features
5.16 Formation of salt domes



6.1 Lithostratigraphic Correlation
6.2 Location map of Well Correlation Figures
6.3 Well correlation for the Devonian of the Northern and Eastern margins
6.4 Palaeogeography of the Middle Devonian
6.5 Palaeogeography of the Upper Devonian
6.6 Well Correlation for Pre-Kungurian in the West of the Basin
6.7 Palaeogeography of the Lower Carboniferous
6.8 Well Correlation for Lower Carboniferous of the Northern Basin Margin
6.9 Well Correlation for the Northern Basin Margin
6.10 Well Correlation for the Visean stage of the Eastern Basin Margin
6.11 Palaeogeography of the Middle Carboniferous
6.12 Well Correlation for the Middle Carboniferous of the Northern Basin Margin
6.13 Well Correlation for the Middle and Upper Carboniferous of the Eastern Basin Margin
6.14 Well Correlation for the Middle and Upper Carboniferous of the South-Eastern Basin Margin
6.15 Palaeogeography of the Upper Carboniferous
6.16 Isopach of Top Carboniferous to Middle Devonian (P2-P3)
6.17 Isopach of Base Kungurian to Top Carboniferous (P1-P2)
6.18 Palaeogeography of the Lower Permian
6.19 Well Correlation for the Lower Permian (Pre-Kungurian) of the Northern Basin Margin
6.20 Well Correlation for the Lower Permian (Pre-Kungurian) of the Eastern Basin Margin
6.21 Well Correlation for the Lower Permian (Pre-Kungurian) of the South-Eastern Basin Margin
6.22 Palaeogeography of the Upper Permian
6.23 Palaeogeography of the Triassic
6.24 Well Correlation for the Lower and Middle Triassic
6.25 Well Correlation for the Upper Triassic of the Central and Southern Basin
6.26 Palaeogeography of the Jurassic
6.27 Well Correlation for the Middle Jurassic of the Central and South-Eastern
6.28 Well Correlation for the Jurassic of the Southern Basin
6.29 Well Correlation for the Upper Jurassic of the West Central Basin
6.30 Palaeogeography of the Cretaceous
6.31 Well Correlation for the Lower Cretaceous of the Central and South-Eastern Basin
6.32 Well Correlation for the Lower Cretaceous of the South-Eastern Basin
6.33 Well Correlation for the Upper Cretaceous of the Northern Basin



7.1 Source Rock Distribution
7.2 Van Krevelan Diagram
7.3 API Gravity Pre-and Post –Salt
7.4 API vs Depth
7.5 Triterpanes from Tengiz Oils and associated Source Rocks
7.6 Saturate/Aromatic Distribution and Depth Trend for Pre-and Post –Salt Oils
7.7 Relationship of API Gravity and Saturate/Aromatic Ratio
7.8 Pristane/Phytane Ratio. Distribution and Depth Trend for Pre-and Post –Salt Oils
7.9 Temperature vs depth
7.10 Temperature at Base Kungurian
7.11 Temperature at Top Carboniferous (P2)
7.12 Temperature at Middle Devonian (P3)
7.13 Vitrinite Reflectance vs Depth
7.14 Burial History. Aralsor-1 Well
7.15 Calibration of Thermal Geochemistry. Aralsor-1 Well
7.16 Generation of Oil and Gas. Aralsor-1 Well
7.17 Calibration of Thermal Geochemistry. Makat Field
7.18 Burial History. Makat Field
7.19 Generation of Oil and Gas. Makat Field
7.20 Burial History. Kozhasay Field
7.21 Temperature profiles from the Yenbek-Temir Arch
7.22 Calibration of Thermal Geochemistry. Kozhasay Field
7.23 Calibration of Thermal Geochemistry. Karpov-2 Well
7.24 Burial History. Karpov-2 Well
7.25 Generation of Oil and Gas. Karpov-2 Well
7.26 Source-Reservoir Relation South Emba Trough



8.1 Porosity vs Permeability
8.2 Porosity vs Permeability by Principal Lithology
8.3 Histogram. Porosity vs Permeability by Principal Lithology
8.4 Porosity vs Depth by Lithology
8.5 Porosity vs Depth by Lithology
8.6 Porosity Distribution by Tectonic Area
8.7 Permeability Distribution by Tectonic Area
8.8 Porosity vs Permeability by Tectonic Area
8.9 Hydrocarbon Density by Stratigraphic Age
8.10 Hydrocarbon Density by Tectonic Area
8.11 Height of Hydrocarbon Column by Stratigraphic Age
8.12 Fluid Contact Depth by Tectonic Area
8.13 Porosity by Stratigraphic Age
8.14 Geometric Mean Permeability by Stratigraphic Age
8.15 Porosity vs Permeability by Stratigraphic Age
8.16 Temperature vs Depth by Stratigraphic Age
8.17 Temperature vs Depth by Tectonic Area
8.18 Field Crestal Pressures
8.19 Permian-Devonian Pressures
8.20 Field Water Salinites (Pre-Salt)



9.1 Seismic Line Showing Stacked Carboniferous and Permian Reef Developments
9.2 Regional Seismic Line Showing Large Carboniferous Atoll
9.3 Seismic Line Across the Teplov Field (Permian Reef)
9.4 Section Showing Incision of Devonian by Channel
9.5 Section Showing ‘Buried Highs’ along Margin of Pre-Caspian
9.6 Seismic Line Showing Diapiric Structure and Drape of Mesozoic section
9.7 Seismic Line Showing Truncation of the Mesozoic by Permian Salt
9.8 Seismic Line Showing Jurassic Channel
9.9 Seismic Line Showing Subcrop and Truncation of the Permo-triassic



10.1 Play Fairways
10.2 Schematic Section Showing the Pre-Artinskian Unconformity
10.3 Schematic Section Showing the Zabrunie Field



HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF PRE-CASPIAN BASIN,
KAZAKHSTAN AND RUSSIA

LIST OF ENCLOSURES

1. Study Area Database
2. Foreign Joint Venture
3. Depth to Basement and Structural Elements
4. Geoseismic Cross-sections
5. Depth Map Intra Permian (p3)
6. Depth Map Top Carboniferous (p2)
7. Depth map Base Kungurian Salt (p1)
8. Salt Features
9. Seismic Line – 108701
10. Seismic Line – 108805
11. Lithostratigraphic Correlation
12. Play Fairways