Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Hydrocarbon Potential of the Mackenzie Delta and Valley, Northwest Territories
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PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE MACKENZIE DELTA AND VALLEY

Contents

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION, REGULATORY, FISCAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Scope of the Report
2.2 Petroleum Sector Overview
2.3 Regulatory Framework
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Historical Background
2.4 Licensing
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 Licence Application and Awards
2.4.3 Licence Types
2.4.4 Licence Levies and Fees
2.4.5 Bid Deposit and Work Deposit
2.4.6 Licence Period and Relinquishment Terms
2.4.7 Licence Rental Payments
2.4.8 Work Obligations
2.4.9 Other Licence Obligations
2.4.10 Benefits Plan - Approval and Reporting
2.4.11 Other Reporting Requirements
2.4.12 Development Plan Approval
2.5 Oil and Gas Drilling Regulations
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Regulations and Guidelines
2.5.3 Operating Licence
2.5.4 Drilling Program and Other Obligations
2.5.5 Reporting Requirements
2.5.6 Other Drilling Related Approvals
2.6 Fiscal Regime and Petroleum Laws
2.6.1 Introduction
2.6.2 Provincial Crown Royalties
2.6.3 Provincial Freehold Royalty and Mineral Tax
2.6.4 Federal Royalty and Frontier Lands Royalty
2.6.5 Provincial Income Tax
2.6.6 Federal Income Tax
2.6.7 Indian Lands Oil and Gas Royalties
2.6.8 Witholding Tax
2.6.9 Price Controls
2.6.10 Customs Duties
2.6.11 Exchange Controls and Market Restrictions
2.6.12 State Participation
2.6.13 Inuvialuit Final Agreement
2.7 Environmental Considerations in Onshore Operations
2.7.1 Introduction
2.7.2 Historical Setting
2.7.3 Regional Considerations
2.7.4 Regulations and Administration
2.7.5 Operational Recommendations
2.7.6 Conclusions

3 EXPLORATION HISTORY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Exploration History of the Mackenzie Valley
3.3 Exploration History of the Onshore Mackenzie Delta
3.4 Development and Production
3.5 Current Exploration Activity

4 DATABASE
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Well Information
4.3 Seismic
4.3.1 Data Availability
4.3.2 Project Seismic Database
4.4 Gravity and Magnetic Data
4.4.1 Gravity Data
4.4.2 Magnetic Data
4.5 Geochemical Database

5 INTERPRETATION METHODOLOGY
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Geology
5.3 Seismic
5.4 Gravity and Magnetic
5.5 Geochemical Interpretation
5.5.1 Source Rocks - Type and Quality
5.5.2 Source Rocks - Maturity

6 STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Plate Tectonic History and Basin Development
6.2.1 Introduction
6.2.2 Proterozoic Megasequences
6.3 Regional Structural Framework
6.3.1 Introduction
6.3.2 Regional Structural Framework
6.4 Gravity/Magnetic Interpretation
6.4.1 Introduction
6.4.2 Regional Structural Elements
6.4.3 Mackenzie Valley
6.4.4 Mackenzie Delta
6.4.5 Magnetic Data
6.5 Seismic Framework and Structural Styles
6.5.1 Introduction
6.5.2 Colville Hills/Anderson Plain
6.5.3 Kee Scarp Area
6.5.4 Peel Basin
6.5.5 Onshore Mackenzie Delta

7 STRATIGRAPHY
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Proterozoic
7.3 Cambrian
7.3.1 Mount Clark
7.3.2 Mount Cap
7.3.3 Saline River
7.3.4 Franklin Mountain
7.4 Ordovician - Silurian
7.4.1 Mount Kindle
7.4.2 Peel
7.5 Devonian
7.5.1 Tatsieta
7.5.2 Arnica - Bear Rock
7.5.3 Landry
7.5.4 Hume
7.5.5 Hare Indian
7.5.6 Ramparts
7.5.7 Kee Scarp
7.5.8 Canol
7.5.9 Imperial
7.6 Carboniferous
7.6.1 Tuttle
7.6.2 Lisburne
7.7 Permian-Triassic
7.7.1 Permian clastics
7.8 Jurassic
7.8.1 Bug Creek
7.8.2 Husky
7.9 Cretaceous
7.9.1 Parsons Group
7.9.2 Mount Goodenough
7.9.3 Arctic Red
7.9.4 Boundary Creek
7.9.5 Smoking Hills
7.10 Tertiary
7.11 Stratigraphic Correlation: North Slope - Mackenzie Delta
7.11.1 Proterozoic to Silurian
7.11.2 Devonian
7.11.3 Carboniferous
7.11.4 Permian - Triassic
7.11.5 Jurassic 6

8 PETROLEUM GEOLOGY
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Hydrocarbon Occurrences
8.2.1 Mackenzie Valley
8.2.2 Mackenzie Delta
8.3 Source Rocks - Type and Quality 2
8.3.1 Colville Hills/Anderson Area
8.3.2 Peel Basin Area 6
8.3.3 Kee Scarp Area
8.3.4 Onshore Mackenzie Delta Area
8.4 Source Rocks - Maturity
8.4.1 Cambrian (and Proterozoic)
8.4.2 Maturity of the Ordovician - Silurian 3
8.4.3 Maturity of the Devonian
8.4.4 Maturity of the Jurassic
8.4.5 Cretaceous - Tertiary
8.5 Reservoirs and Seals
8.5.1 Introduction
8.5.2 Colville Hills/Anderson Plain
8.5.3 Peel Basin 183
8.5.4 Kee Scarp Area 185
8.5.5 Onshore Mackenzie Delta
8.6 Migration
8.6.1 Primary Migration
8.6.2 Secondary Migration
8.6.3 Geochemical Synthesis
8.7 Trapping Mechanisms
8.7.1 Introduction
8.7.2 Colville Hills/Anderson Plain
8.7.3 Peel Basin
8.7.4 Kee Scarp Area
8.7.5 Mackenzie Delta

9 HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Play Concepts
9.2.1 Colville Hills/Anderson Plain
9.2.2 Peel Basin Area
9.2.3 Kee Scarp Area
9.2.4 Onshore Mackenzie Delta Area
9.3 Summary

10 FIELD DEVELOPMENT AND COST DATABASE
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Pipelines
10.2.1 Oil Pipelines
10.2.2 Gas Pipelines
10.3 Existing Field Developments in the Region
10.3.1 Prudhoe Bay Field
10.3.2 Norman Wells Field
10.4 Proposed Field Developments in the Region
10.4.1 Introduction
10.4.2 East Amauligak Field
10.4.3 Niglintgak Field
10.4.4 Parsons Lake Field
10.4.5 Taglu Field and Associated Fields
10.4.6 Ya Ya Field
10.5 Cost Database

11 ECONOMIC MODELLING AND ANALYSIS
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Economic Analysis Methods and Assumptions
11.2.1 Basic Assumptions
11.2.2 Cash Flow Analysis Methodolgy
11.2.3 Economic Indicators
11.3 Petroleum Economics
11.3.1 100 MMBO Oilfield - Norman Wells Area
11.3.2 8 MMBO Oilfield - Pinnacle Reef; Norman Wells Area
11.3.3 25 MMBO Oilfield - Mackenzie Valley
11.3.4 60 MMBO Oilfield - Mackenzie Delta
11.3.5 2 TCF Gasfield - Mackenzie Delta
11.4 Conclusions of the Economic Analysis

12 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES 269

PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE MACKENZIE DELTA AND VALLEY

LIST OF FIGURES

2.1 Study Area
2.2 Licensing Procedures - Flow Diagram
2.3 Fiscal Regime - Flow Diagram
2.4 Proposed Pipeline Routes - Mackenzie Corridor

3.1 Drilling Dates of Wells in the Mackenzie Valley
3.2 Drilling Dates of Wells in the Mackenzie Delta
3.3 Licence Map - Mackenzie Valley
3.4 Licence Map - Mackenzie Delta

4.1 Geographical Division of Study Area for Well Summaries
4.2 Summary of Stratigraphy and Symbols Used for Well Summaries
4.3 Comparison of original and reprocessed data Seismic Line 82-W-23X, Kee Scarp Area
4.4 Comparison of original and reprocessed data Seismic Line DMT-410, Tuktoyaktuk Area
4.5 Comparison of original and reprocessed data Seismic Line 82-1811, Kugpik Area

5.1 Synthetic Seismogram - Tedji Lake K-24
5.2 Synthetic Seismogram - Tweed Lake M-47
5.3 Seismic Character - Tweed Lake, Colville Hills
5.4 Synthetic Seismogram - Carcajou D-05
5.5 Synthetic Seismogram - Hoosier Ridge N-22
5.6 Synthetic Seismogram - Hume River A-53
5.7 Synthetic Seismogram - Maida Creek F-57
5.8 Synthetic Seismogram - Manitou Lake L-61
5.9 Synthetic Seismogram - Mountain River H-47
5.10 Synthetic Seismogram - Norman Wells M-36X
5.11 Synthetic Seismogram - Ontadek Lake N-39
5.12 Seismic Character - Kee Scarp Area
5.13 Synthetic Seismogram - Caribou N-25
5.14 Synthetic Seismogram - Cranswick A-22
5.15 Synthetic Seismogram - Ontaratue H-34
5.16 Synthetic Seismogram - Trail River H-37
5.17 Synthetic Seismogram - Tree River F-57
5.18 Seismic Character - Cranswick Terrace, Peel Basin
5.19 Synthetic Seismogram - Beaverhouse Creek H-13
5.20 Synthetic Seismogram - Imnak J-29
5.21 Synthetic Seismogram - Kamik D-48
5.22 Synthetic Seismogram - Kugpik O-13
5.23 Synthetic Seismogram - Ogruknang M-31
5.24 Synthetic Seismogram - Tuk L-09
5.25 Seismic Character, Kugpik Area
5.26 Seismic Character, Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula
5.27 Standard Magnetic Anomalies
5.28 Magnetic Depth Estimate
5.29 Percentage Ro/Tmax correlation - data for all areas

6.1 Summary of Major Structural Features
6.2 Late Devonian Plate Tectonic Setting
6.3 Early Jurassic (200Ma) Plate Tectonic Setting
6.4 Early Cretaceous (115Ma) Plate Tectonic Setting
6.5 Late Cretaceous (75Ma) Plate Tectonic Setting
6.6 Palaeocene (60Ma) Plate Tectonic Setting
6.7 Tectonic Evolution Summary
6.8 Bouguer Gravity
6.9 Residual Bouguer
6.10 Magnetic Anomaly
6.11 Residual Magnetic Anomaly
6.12 Top Proterozoic Depth Map - Mackenzie Valley
6.13 Seismic Section - Colville Hills
6.14 Mid Devonian Depth Map - Mackenzie Valley
6.15 Seismic Section - Kee Scarp Reef, Norman Wells
6.16 Structural Configuration and Balanced Cross-Section - Norman Wells
6.17 Seismic Section - Kee Scarp Area - thrusted anticline/possible reef development
6.18 Base Cretaceous Depth Form Map - Mackenzie Valley
6.19 Seismic Section - Cranswick Terrace, Peel Basin
6.20 Lower Cretaceous structuring, Peel Basin
6.21 Base Mesozoic Unconformity - Mackenzie Delta
6.22 Near Top Jurassic Depth Map - Mackenzie Delta
6.23 Near Top Parsons Depth Map - Mackenzie Delta
6.24 Near Base Tertiary Depth Map - Mackenzie Delta
6.25 Seismic Section - Kugpik Area
6.26 Seismic Section - Tununuk High
6.27 Seismic Section - Tertiary Diapir, outer Delta
6.28 Seismic Section - Tuk. Peninsula/Kugmallit Trough
6.29 Seismic Section - South Parsons Area

7.1 Stratigraphy of the Colville Hills/Anderson Area
7.2 Stratigraphy of the Peel Basin Area
7.3 Stratigraphy of the Kee Scarp Area
7.4 Stratigraphy of the Onshore Mackenzie Delta
7.5 Lithostratigraphic Correlation of the Mackenzie Valley
7.6 Lithostratigraphic Correlation Across the Onshore Mackenzie Delta
7.7 Location of Proterozoic
7.8 Isopach of Mount Clark
7.9 Well Correlation - Colville Hills/Anderson Area
7.10 Isopach of Mount Cap
7.11 Isopach of Saline River Salt
7.12 Isopach of Saline River Clastics
7.13 Well Correlation Across the Peel Basin Area
7.14 Isopach of Franklin Mountain
7.15 Isopach of Mount Kindle
7.16 Isopach of Peel and Road River
7.17 Well Correlation - Northwestern Kee Scarp Area
7.18 Isopach of Tatsieta
7.19 Isopach of Arnica/Bear Rock
7.20 Isopach of Landry
7.21 Isopach of Hume
7.22 Isopach of Hare Indian
7.23 Isopach of Ramparts/Kee Scarp
7.24 Isopach of Canol
7.25 Isopach of Imperial
7.26 Isopach of Tuttle
7.27 Well Correlation Across the Onshore Mackenzie Delta
7.28 Isopach of Permian sediments
7.29 Isopach of Bug Creek
7.30 Isopach of Husky
7.31 Isopach of Parsons
7.32 Isopach of Mount Goodenough
7.33 Isopach of Arctic Red - Delta
7.34 Isopach of Arctic Red and Sans Sault - Valley
7.35 Isopach of Smoking Hills/Boundary Creek
7.36 Tertiary Stratigraphy
7.37 Lithostratigraphic Correlation - North Slope, Alaska to Mackenzie Delta

8.1 Hydrocarbon types in the Mackenzie Valley
8.2 Hydrocarbon types in the Delta area
8.3 Stratigraphic Distribution of Source Rocks of the Colville Hills/Anderson area
8.4 Total Organic Carbon in the Proterozoic and Mount Cap Formations
8.5 Stratigraphic distribution of source rocks of Peel Basin area
8.6 Stratigraphic distribution of source rocks of Kee Scarp area
8.7 Kerogen quantity (upper) and type (lower) for Devonian source rocks, Kee Scarp and Peel Basin
8.8 Maturity effects on kerogen type, Devonian source rocks, Kee Scarp and Peel Basin
8.9 Stratigraphic distribution of source rocks of (onshore) Mackenzie Delta
8.10 Quantity (upper) and type (lower) for Husky source rocks, Delta area
8.11 Organic facies of Husky source rocks
8.12 Kerogen type of Upper Cretaceous source rocks, well (upper) and outcrop samples (lower), Mackenzie Delta area
8.13 Corrected log temperature data plotted against depth for all wells sorted by area
8.14 Schematic maturity of the Cambrian Mount Clark Formation
8.15 Thermal geohistory, Nogha O-47, Colville Hills area
8.16 Maturity of the Canol Formation, Peel Basin and Kee Scarp areas
8.17 Maturity calibration, Ontaratue H-34, Peel Basin
8.18 Thermal geohistory, Ontaratue H-34, Peel Basin
8.19 Maturity and temperature calibration, Hoosier Ridge N-22, Kee Scarp area
8.20 Thermal geohistory, Hoosier Ridge N-22, Kee Scarp area
8.21 Maturity of the Husky Formation, Delta area
8.22 Maturity calibration, Ulu A-35, Delta area
8.23 Thermal geohistory, Ulu A-35, Delta area
8.24 Maturity of the Upper Cretaceous source rocks, Delta area
8.25 Hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency, Canol Formation, Peel Basin and Kee Scarp
8.26 Schematic migration pathways: Peel Basin - Kee Scarp o Colville Hills (upper) and Delta (lower)
8.27 Stratigraphic Distribution of Reservoirs and Seals o Colville Hills/Anderson Plain Area
8.28 Reservoir Potential - Mount Clark
8.29 Key Well - Tedji Lake K-24
8.30 Key Well - Tweed Lake M-47
8.31 Stratigraphic Distribution of Reservoirs and Seals - Peel Basin Area
8.32 Reservoir Potential - Franklin Mountain
8.33 Key Well - Cranswick A-22
8.34 Reservoir Potential - Arnica
8.35 Key Well - Tree River F-57
8.36 Reservoir Potential - Tuttle
8.37 Stratigraphic Distribution of Reservoirs and Seals - Kee Scarp Area
8.38 Key Well - Ontadek Lake N-39
8.39 Key Well - Mountain River H-47
8.40 Reservoir Potential - Kee Scarp and Post Hume Reefs
8.41 Key Well - Manitou Lake L-61
8.42 Key Well - Maida Creek F-57
8.43 Key Well - Hume River A-53
8.44 Key Well - Norman Wells M-36X
8.45 Key Well - Hoosier Ridge N-22
8.46 Key Well - Carcajou D-05
8.47 Well Correlation - Norman Wells to Manitou Lake
8.48 Reservoir Potential - Sans Sault
8.49 Stratigraphic Distribution of Reservoirs and Seals o Onshore Mackenzie Delta Area
8.50 Reservoir Potential - Permian
8.51 Key Well - Beaverhouse Creek H-13
8.52 Reservoir Potential - Bug Creek
8.53 Well Correlation - Jurassic Bug Creek Section
8.54 Reservoir Potential - Parsons
8.55 Well Correlation - Lower Cretaceous Parsons
8.56 Key Well - Kugpik O-13
8.57 Key Well - Kamik D-48
8.58 Key Well - Tuk L-09
8.59 Porosity v Depth - Parsons Reservoir
8.60 Reservoir Potential - Mt. Goodenough
8.61 Key Well - Imnak J-29
8.62 Structural Trapping Styles - Mackenzie Valley
8.63 Structural Trapping Styles - Mackenzie Delta

9.1 Cambrian Play Concepts - Colville Hills/Anderson Area
9.2 Cretaceous Play Concept - Kee Scarp and Peel Basin Area
9.3 Devonian Play Concepts - Kee Scarp Area
9.4 Permian Play Concept - Onshore Mackenzie Delta Area
9.5 Jurassic Play Concepts - Onshore Mackenzie Delta Area
9.6 Cretaceous Play Concepts - Onshore Mackenzie Delta Area
9.7 Play Concepts Summary - Mackenzie Valley
9.8 Play Concepts Summary - Mackenzie Delta

11.1 Sensitivity of Economic Analysis to Field Size - Norman Wells Area
11.2 Expected Monetary Value Profile - Norman Wells Area
11.3 Expected Monetary Value Profile - Pinnacle Reef Case, Peel Basin
11.4 Sensitivity of Economic Analysis to Distance from Norman Wells
11.5 Expected Monetary Value Profile - Peel Basin
11.6 Expected Monetary Value Profile - Delta Oilfield
11.7 Sensitivity of Economic Analysis to Field Size - Delta Gasfield
11.8 Expected Monetary Value Profile - Delta Gasfield

PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE MACKENZIE DELTA AND VALLEY

LIST OF ENCLOSURES
Scale: 1:500,000

1 Database - Mackenzie Valley
2 Database - Mackenzie Delta
3 Bouguer Gravity - Mackenzie Valley
4 Bouguer Gravity - Mackenzie Delta
5 Residual Bouguer Gravity - Mackenzie Valley
6 Residual Bouguer Gravity - Mackenzie Delta
7 Magnetic Anomaly - Mackenzie Valley
8 Magnetic Anomaly - Mackenzie Delta
9 Residual Magnetic Anomalies - Mackenzie Valley
10 Residual Magnetic Anomalies - Mackenzie Delta
11 Structural Framework - Mackenzie Valley
12 Structural Framework - Mackenzie Delta
13 Structural Cross sections - Mackenzie Valley
14 Structural Cross sections - Mackenzie Delta
15 Depth to Proterozoic - Mackenzie Valley
16 Depth to Mid Devonian - Mackenzie Valley
17 Depth to Base Mesozoic - Mackenzie Valley
18 Depth to Base Mesozoic - Mackenzie Delta
19 Depth to Base Mesozoic - Mackenzie Delta (1:250,000)
20 Lithostratigraphic Correlation - Mackenzie Valley
21 Lithostratigraphic Correlation - Mackenzie Delta
22 Isopach Montage - Mackenzie Valley
23 Isopach Montage - Mackenzie Delta
24 Distribution of Hydrocarbon Occurrences - Mackenzie Valley
25 Distribution of Hydrocarbon Occurrences - Mackenzie Delta
26 Play Fairways - Mackenzie Valley
27 Play Fairways - Mackenzie Delta